Fat is also an important component like protein and carbohydrate and made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. Some lipids or fats have phosphorus also. Fat is a big source of energy in our food. 1gm. fat give us 9 kcal. and it helps to absorb fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A, D, and E. Some fats which derived from vegetable sources provide us essential fatty acids (EFA) and they play an important role for our cells. Fats are derived from 2 sources , animal and vegetable sources. Liquid fat like groundnut, mustard, sunflower, coconut are derived from vegetable sources and a kind of solid fat like vanaspati ghee are hydrogenated and also find from the vegetable group. These are triglycerides.
An animal fat such as ghee and butter contain fat soluble which don't have in the vegetable group. These are 2 types of visible fat which occur from vegetable and animal sources but there is another type of fat which we can't see but it is present and affect our body functions. They derived from milk, eggs, cereals, pulses nuts soybean, avocado.
Types of fat
We can be classified them basically in 3 types.
1)HDL monounsaturated fat or polyunsaturated fat This type of fats are liquid at room temperature. They are high-density lipoproteins and have lower blood cholesterol level. HDL like sunflower oil, soybean, and fish oil are provided us polyunsaturated fat. Peanuts, avocados, olives are sources of unsaturated fat and canola oil, peanut oil are the good sources of monounsaturated fat. This type of fats reduces the risk of heart problems such as cardiac arrest and heart attack. Omega 3 fatty acids are also rich in polyunsaturated fat and found in cold water fish, walnuts and flaxseed.
2.) LDL (Bad fat) They are saturated in nature and almost absorbed by digestion. So they can raise many health problems like fat, obesity, heart problems and many more.LDL are mainly present in animal products like meat, eggs, seafood and dairy products but there are some plants who are rich in LDL or bad or saturated fat like palm oil, coconut oil .
3)Trans fat This type of fats are not found in nature but they are made by hydrogenation of fats and they are worst kind of fat. Trans fats are mainly produced by liquid oils. Trans fats are mainly used for commercial purposes such as fast food, french fries, microwaved popcorn and many more. These fast are very harmful to health to raise Of LDL or bad cholesterol.
Functions of fat
The main function of fat is giving energy. 1 gm fat gives 9 kcal this is almost double what protein and carbohydrate give. Some essential fatty acid like linelike acid is played an important role to maintain tissues. Fats are necessary to absorb the fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamin A,D,E,K especially vitamin A is needed fat to absorb carotene. Extra carbs that we intake during meals also stored as fat and give energy during weakness or fasting. They make our gastrointestinal tract smooth to make digestion easier. They help to regulate body temperature by making a layer of fat inside the skin, it acts as an insulator. They also make a safety layer outside of the body organs such as heart, kidney and make them Safe from sudden storks. Phospholipid a kind of fat takes apart to make cell membrane and make it's permeability proper. It can be a little weird to hear fat can increase our food's taste.
Deficiency of fats
A deficiency of fats can make the skin dry, brittle hair and hair loss, low energy level and constipation can also occur. This can make immune system deteriorated, vision and learning problem, underweight and vitamins deficiency disease can be occurred due to less absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Lack of good fats can make a problem of cancer too. Heart risks are also raised in a condition of less good fats.
Excessive intake of fats
Although fat like good fats are a vital part of the body but there are some problems are found in the excessive intake. Fats can make us obese which can invite many health issues. Atherosclerosis a kind of artery blockage can be caused heart problem. One more condition that is called hyperlipidemia is find in this condition. In hyperlipidemia, this is a condition of extra fat in the blood.